One way Ian Smith and the Rhodesian whites framed the Bush War (1964 – 1979) was to cast the violent uprising led by Nkomo ZUPA (Soviet leaning) and Mugabe ZUNA (Maoist leaning) as a conflict along ideological lines ONLY. The following film attempts to paper over the obvious racial conflict by sighting the Communist politics of these competing ZUPA and ZUNA movements as the true source of that conflict. It is not racial, it is ideological, according to Smith. This is plausible but an obvious misdirection at the inherent issue of racial discrimination on the institutional level. There is also a nationalist sentiment to the conflict. Mugabe’s Shona fought with the Nkomo Ndebele-speaking south in an uneasy Patriotic Front. These parties were militant and actively engaged in violent conflict amongst eachother and against European whites. Mugabe claimed that non-violent approaches had failed to achieve his goals. Thus, Mugabe’s forces engaged in Terrorism or Freedom Fighting/Intimidating Authorities to support revolution: their guerilla warfare was gruesome with widespread murder as this film demonstrates. The violence operates in a cycle, atrocities are perpetrated by both sides against civilian bystanders. Mugabe used dangerous language about how the settler government needed to be removed.  “Only a dead imperialist is a good one” according to Mugabe. In accordance with Communist politics, Mugabe had priests brutally murdered (comparable to the Spanish Civil War, for example). Mugabe, as the leader of any African nationalist movement, embraced European ideas/principles in order to accrue power. That power was best facilitated through the ideology of Nationalism as well as Communism. Mugabe advocated for a non-race based polity/community which by definition meant black African majority rule. Conclusively, on either side then, justifications for positions are cloaked in ideology that suits their ulterior objectives.

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